Acquired Aplastic Anaemia is considered as an auto immune disease. In auto immune diseases, the immune system of the body targets its cells mistaking it for foreign bodies. In aplastic anaemia, the target of the body is the bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells. But why the body acts like this remains unclear even today.
However, there is some knowledge regarding certain trigger factors for aplastic anaemia. Some of them are-
• Toxins like arsenic, benzene, and certain pesticides
• Radiation and chemotherapy treatments for tumours and cancers
• Treatment for certain autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and SLE
• Pregnancy, but the condition is very much reversible after childbirth
• Viral infections with hepatitis, Epstein Barr, Cytomegalovirus, Parvovirus, and HIV
• Metastasis or spread of cancers to the bone marrow
So, Aplastic Anaemia is not a form of cancer. However, even though it is not a malignant disease, it is a very serious disease.
Aplastic Anaemia can be classified into three types:
• Non-severe aplastic anaemia: In this type, the blood cells count is low, but not too much. There may be no symptoms displayed and doctors may not prescribe a treatment plan yet.
• Severe Aplastic Anaemia: In this type the neutrophil count is very low as is the platelet and reticulocyte count.
• Very Severe Aplastic Anaemia: In this type, the neutrophil count is less than 200/microliter. Apart from this, all other counts are similar to severe aplastic anaemia.